CAFO stands for Confined Animal Feeding Operation.  A CAFO confines the animals at all times and does not let them roam on the range.  These operations are sometimes referred to as factory farms because they resemble a factory in their composition and design.  The animals are fed, milked, cleaned, etc all using an assembly line type mentality tailored to the agriculture industry.  This is becoming a very heated issue for Indiana residents because of the possible environmental contamination that may occur. 

IDEM administers the EPA regulations that the CAFO must abide by - also called an NPDES permit.  Once a farm reaches a certain number of animals it must be classified as either a CFO (confined feeding operation) or a CAFO.  A CFO is smaller than a CAFO.  The small traditional family farm may not have to have any permits if they do not have enough animals to fall under any of the IDEM guidelines